Some issues

Pain Points

It is true to say that Rust is a harder language to learn than most other ‘mainstream’ languages. There are exceptional people who don’t find it so, but note the strict meaning of ‘exceptional’ - they are exceptions. Many struggle at first, and then succeed. Initial difficulties aren’t predictive of later competency!

We all come from somewhere, and in the case of programming languages this means previous exposure to mainstream languages like one of the ‘dynamic’ languages like Python or one of the ‘static’ languages like C++. Either way, Rust is sufficiently different to require mental retooling. Clever people with experience jump in and are disappointed that their cleverness is not immediately rewarded; people with less self-worth think they aren’t ‘clever’ enough.

For those with dynamic language experience (in which I would include Java) everything is a reference, and all references are mutable by default. And garbage collection does make it easier to write memory-safe programs. A lot has gone into making the JVM pretty fast, at the cost of memory use and predicability. Often that cost is considered worth it - the old new idea that programmer productivity is more important than computer performance.

But most computers in the world - the ones that handle really important things like throttle control on cars - don’t have the massive resources that even a cheap laptop has, and they need to respond to events in real time. Likewise, basic software infrastructure needs to be correct, robust, and fast (the old engineering trinity). Much of this is done in C and C++ which are inherently unsafe - the total cost of this unsafety is the thing to look at here. Maybe you knock the program together quicker, but then the real development starts.

System languages can’t afford garbage collection, because they are the bedrock on which everything rests. They allow you to be free to waste resources as you see fit.

If there is no garbage collection, then memory must be managed in other ways. Manual memory management - I grab memory, use it, and explicitly give it back - is hard to get right. You can learn enough C to be productive and dangerous in a few weeks - but it takes years to become a good safe C programmer, checking every possible error condition.

Rust manages memory like modern C++ - as objects are destroyed, their memory is reclaimed. You can allocate memory on the heap with Box, but as soon as that box ‘goes out of scope’ at the end of the function, the memory is reclaimed. So there is something like new but nothing like delete. You create a File and at the end, the file handle (a precious resource) is closed. In Rust this is called dropping.

You need to share resources - it’s very inefficient to make copies of everything - and that’s where things get interesting. C++ also has references, although Rust references are rather more like C pointers - you need to say *r to refer to the value, you need to say & to pass a value as a reference.

Rust’s borrow checker makes sure that is impossible in safe mode for a reference to exist after the original value is destroyed.

Type Inference

The distinction between ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ isn’t everything. Like with most things, there are more dimensions in play. C is statically-typed (every variable has a type at compile-time) but weakly-typed (e.g. void* can point to anything); Python is dynamically-typed (the type is in the value, not the variable) but strongly-typed. Java is static/sorta strong (with reflection as convenient/dangerous escape valve) and Rust is static/strong, with no runtime reflection.

Java is famous for needing all thoses types typed out in numbing detail, Rust likes to infer types. This is generally a good idea, but it does mean that you sometimes need to work out what the actual types are. You will see let n = 100 and wonder - what kind of integer is this? By default, it would be i32 - a four-byte signed integer. Everyone agrees by now that C’s unspecified integer types (like int and long) are a bad idea; better to be explicit. You can always spell out the type, as in let n: u32 = 100 or let the literal force the type, as in let n = 100u32. But type inference goes much further than that! If you declare let n = 100 then all rustc knows that n must be some integer type. If you then passed n to a function expecting a u64 then that must be the type of n!

After that, you try to pass n to a function expecting u32. rustc will not let you do this, because n has been tied down to u64 and it will not take the easy way out and convert that integer for you! This is strong typing in action - there are none of those little conversions and promotions which make your life smoother until integer overflow bites your ass suddenly. You would have to explicitly pass n as n as u32 - a Rust typecast. Fortunately, rustc is good at breaking the bad news in an ‘actionable’ way - that is, you can follow the compiler’s advice about fixing the problem.

So, Rust code can be very free of explicit types:

let mut v = Vec::new();
// v is deduced to have type Vec<i32>
v.push("hello") <--- just can't do this, man!

Not being able to put strings into a vector of integers is a feature, not a bug. The flexibility of dynamic typing is also a curse.

(If you do need to put integers and strings into the same vector, then Rust enum types are the way to do it safely.)

Sometimes you need to at least give a type hint. collect is a fantastic iterator method, but it needs a hint. Say I have a iterator returning char. Then collect can swing two ways:

// a vector of char ['h','e','l','l','o']
let v: Vec<_> = "hello".chars().collect();
// a string "doy"
let m: String = "dolly".chars().filter(|&c| c != 'l').collect();

When feeling uncertain about the type of a variable, there’s always this trick, which forces rustc to reveal the actual type name in an error message:

let x: () = var;

rustc may pick an over-specific type. Here we want to put different references into a vector as &Debug:

use std::fmt::Debug;

let answer = 42;
let message = "hello";
let float = 2.7212;
let display: Vec<&Debug> = vec![&message, &answer, &float];

for d in display {
    println!("got {:?}", d);

Mutable References

The rule is: only one mutable reference at a time. The reason is that tracking mutability is hard when it can happen all over the place. Not obvious in dinky little programs, but things can get bad in big codebases.

The further constraint is that you can’t have immutable references while there’s a mutable reference out. Otherwise, anybody who has those references doesn’t have a guarantee that they won’t change. C++ also has immutable references (e.g. const string&) but does not give you this guarantee that someone can’t keep a string& reference and modify it behind your back.

This is a challenge if you are used to languages where every reference is mutable! Unsafe, ‘relaxed’ languages depend on people understanding their own programs and nobly deciding not to do Bad Things. But big programs are written by more than one person and are beyond the power of a single individual to understand in detail.

The irritating thing is that the borrow checker is not as smart as it could be.

let mut m = HashMap::new();
m.insert("one", 1);
m.insert("two", 2);

if let Some(r) = m.get_mut("one") { // <-- mutable borrow of m
    *r = 10;
} else {
    m.insert("one", 1); // can't borrow mutably again!

Clearly this does not violate the Rules since if we got None we haven’t actually borrowed anything from the map.

There are various ugly workarounds:

let mut found = false;
if let Some(r) = m.get_mut("one") {
    *r = 10;
    found = true;
if ! found {
    m.insert("one", 1);

Which is yucky, but it works because the bothersome borrow is kept to the first if-statement.

The better way here is to use HashMap’s entry API.

use std::collections::hash_map::Entry;

match m.entry("one") {
    Entry::Occupied(e) => {
        *e.into_mut() = 10;
    Entry::Vacant(e) => {

The borrow checker will get less frustrating when non-lexical lifetimes arrive sometime this year.

The borrow checker does understand some important cases, however. If you have a struct, fields can be independently borrowed. So composition is your friend; a big struct should contain smaller structs, which have their own methods. Defining all the mutable methods on the big struct will lead to a situation where you can’t modify things, even though the methods might only refer to one field.

With mutable data, there are special methods for treating parts of the data independently. For instance, if you have a mutable slice, then split_at_mut will split this into two mutable slices. This is perfectly safe, since Rust knows that the slices do not overlap.

References and Lifetimes

Rust cannot allow a situation where a reference outlives the value. Otherwise we would have a ‘dangling reference’ where it refers to a dead value - a segfault is inevitable.

rustc can often make sensible assumptions about lifetimes in functions:

fn pair(s: &str, ch: char) -> (&str, &str) {
    if let Some(idx) = s.find(ch) {
        (&s[0..idx], &s[idx+1..])
    } else {
        (s, "")
fn main() {
    let p = pair("hello:dolly", ':');
    println!("{:?}", p);
// ("hello", "dolly")

This is quite safe because we cope with the case where the delimiter isn’t found. rustc is here assuming that both strings in the tuple are borrowed from the string passed as an argument to the function.

Explicitly, the function definition looks like this:

fn pair<'a>(s: &'a str, ch: char) -> (&'a str, &'a str) {...}

What the notation says is that the output strings live at least as long as the input string. It’s not saying that the lifetimes are the same, we could drop them at any time, just that they cannot outlive s.

So, rustc can make common cases prettier with lifetime ellision.

Now, if that function received two strings, then you would need to explicitly do lifetime annotation to tell Rust what output string is borrowed from what input string.

You always need an explicit lifetime when a struct borrows a reference:

struct Container<'a> {
    s: &'a str

Which is again insisting that the struct cannot outlive the reference. For both structs and functions, the lifetime needs to be declared in <> like a type parameter.

Closures are very convenient and a powerful feature - a lot of the power of Rust iterators comes from them. But if you store them, you have to specify a lifetime. This is because basically a closure is a generated struct that can be called, and that by default borrows its environment. Here the linear closure has immutable references to m and c.

let m = 2.0;
let c = 0.5;

let linear = |x| m*x + c;
let sc = |x| m*x.cos()

Both linear and sc implement Fn(x: f64)->f64 but they are not the same animal - they have different types and sizes! So to store them you have to make a Box<Fn(x: f64)->f64 + 'a>.

Very irritating if you’re used to how fluent closures are in Javascript or Lua, but C++ does a similar thing to Rust and needs std::function to store different closures, taking a little penalty for the virtual call.


It is common to feel irritated with Rust strings in the beginning. There are different ways to create them, and they all feel verbose:

let s1 = "hello".to_string();
let s2 = String::from("dolly");

Isn’t “hello” already a string? Well, in a way. String is an owned string, allocated on the heap; a string literal “hello” is of type &str (“string slice”) and might be either baked into the executable (“static”) or borrowed from a String. System languages need this distinction - consider a tiny microcontroller, which has a little bit of RAM and rather more ROM. Literal strings will get stored in ROM (“read-only”) which is both cheaper and consumes much less power.

But (you may say) it’s so simple in C++:

std::string s = "hello";

Which is shorter yes, but hides the implicit creation of a string object. Rust likes to be explicit about memory allocations, hence to_string. On the other hand, to borrow from a C++ string requires c_str, and C strings are stupid.

Fortunately, things are better in Rust - once you accept that both String and &str are necessary. The methods of String are mostly for changing the string, like push adding a char (under the hood it’s very much like a Vec<u8>). But all the methods of &str are also available. By the same Deref mechanism, a String can be passed as &str to a function - which is why you rarely see &String in function definitions.

There are a number of ways to convert &str to String, corresponding to various traits. Rust needs these traits to work with types generically. As a rule of thumb, anything that implements Display also knows to_string, like 42.to_string().

Some operators may not behave according to intuition:

    let s1 = "hello".to_string();
    let s2 = s1.clone();
    assert!(s1 == s2);  // cool
    assert!(s1 == "hello"); // fine
    assert!(s1 == &s2); // WTF?

Remember, String and &String are different types, and == isn’t defined for that combination. This might puzzle a C++ person who is used to references being almost interchangeable with values. Furthermore, &s2 doesn’t magically become a &str, that’s a deref coercion which only happens when assigning to a &str variable or argument. (The explicit s2.as_str() would work.)

However, this more genuinely deserves a WTF:

let s3 = s1 + s2;  // <--- no can do

You cannot concatenate two String values, but you can concatenate a String with a &str. You furthermore cannot concatenate a &str with a String. So mostly people don’t use + and use the format! macro, which is convenient but not so efficient.

Some string operations are available but work differently. For instance, languages often have a split method for breaking up a string into an array of strings. This method for Rust strings returns an iterator, which you can then collect into a vector.

let parts: Vec<_> = s.split(',').collect();

This is a bit clumsy if you are in a hurry to get a vector. But it’s great if you want to do operations on the parts without allocating a vector! For instance, length of largest string in the split?

let max = s.split(',').map(|s| s.len()).max().unwrap();

(The unwrap is because an empty iterator has no maximum and we must cover this case.)

The collect method returns a Vec<&str>, where the parts are borrowed from the original string - we only need allocate space for the references.

A Note on Semicolons

Semicolons are not optional, but usually left out in the same places as in C, e.g. after {} blocks. They also aren’t needed after enum or struct (that’s a C peculiarity.) However, if the block must have a value, then the semi-colons are dropped:

    let msg = if ok {"ok"} else {"error"};

Note that there must be a semi-colon after this let statement!

If there were semicolons after these string literals then the returned value would be () (like Nothing or void). It’s common error when defining functions:

fn sqr(x: f64) -> f64 {
    x * x;

rustc will give you a clear error in this case.

C++-specific Issues

Rust value semantics are Different

In C++, it’s possible to define types which behave exactly like primitives and copy themselves. In addition, a move constructor can be defined to specify how a value can be moved out of a temporary context.

In Rust, primitives behave as expected, but the Copy trait can only be defined if the aggregate type (struct, tuple or enum) itself contains only copyable types. Arbitrary types may have Clone, but you have to call the clone method on values. Rust requires any allocation to be explicit and not hide in copy constructors or assignment operators.

So, copying and moving is always defined as just moving bits around and is not overrideable.

If s1 is a non Copy value type, then s2 = s1; causes a move to happen, and this consumes s1! So, when you really want a copy, use clone.

Borrowing is often better than copying, but then you must follow the rules of borrowing. Fortunately, borrowing is an overridable behaviour. For instance, String can be borrowed as &str, and shares all the immutable methods of &str. String slices are very powerful compared to the analogous C++ ‘borrowing’ operation, which is to extract a const char* using c_str. &str consists of a pointer to some owned bytes (or a string literal) and a size. This leads to some very memory-efficient patterns. You can have a Vec<&str> where all the strings have been borrowed from some underlying string - only space for the vector needs to be allocated:

For example, splitting by whitespace:

fn split_whitespace(s: &str) -> Vec<&str> {

Likewise, a C++ s.substr(0,2) call will always copy the string, but a slice will just borrow: &s[0..2].

There is an equivalent relationship between Vec<T> and &[T].

Shared References

Rust has smart pointers like C++ - for instance, the equivalent of std::unique_ptr is Box. There’s no need for delete, since any memory or other resources will be reclaimed when the box goes out of scope (Rust very much embraces RAII).

let mut answer = Box::new("hello".to_string());
*answer = "world".to_string();
println!("{} {}", answer, answer.len());

People find to_string irritating at first, but it is explicit.

Note the explicit dererefence *, but methods on smart pointers don’t need any special notation (we do not say (*answer).push('!'))

Obviously, borrowing only works if there is a clearly defined owner of the original content. In many designs this isn’t possible.

In C++, this is where std::shared_ptr is used; copying just involves modifying a reference count on the common data. This is not without cost, however:

  • even if the data is read-only, constantly modifying the reference count can cause cache invalidation
  • std::shared_ptr is designed to be thread-safe and carries locking overhead as well

In Rust, std::rc::Rc also acts like a shared smart pointer using reference-counting. However, it is for immutable references only! If you want a thread-safe variant, use std::sync::Arc (for ‘Atomic Rc’). So Rust is being a little awkward here in providing two variants, but you get to avoid the locking overhead for non-threaded operations.

These must be immutable references because that is fundamental to Rust’s memory model. However, there’s a get-out card: std::cell::RefCell. If you have a shared reference defined as Rc<RefCell<T>> then you can mutably borrow using its borrow_mut method. This applies the Rust borrowing rules dynamically - so e.g. any attempt to call borrow_mut when a borrow was already happening will cause a panic.

This is still safe. Panics will happen before any memory has been touched inappropriately! Like exceptions, they unroll the call stack. So it’s an unfortunate word for such a structured process - it’s an ordered withdrawal rather than a panicked retreat.

The full Rc<RefCell<T>> type is clumsy, but the application code isn’t unpleasant. Here Rust (again) is prefering to be explicit.

If you wanted thread-safe access to shared state, then Arc<T> is the only safe way to go. If you need mutable access, then Arc<Mutex<T>> is the equivalent of Rc<RefCell<T>>. Mutex works a little differently than how it’s usually defined: it is a container for a value. You get a lock on the value and can then modify it.

let answer = Arc::new(Mutex::new(10));

// in another thread
  let mut answer_ref = answer.lock().unwrap();
  *answer_ref = 42;

Why the unwrap? If the previous holding thread panicked, then this lock fails. (It’s one place in the documentation where unwrap is considered a reasonable thing to do, since clearly things have gone seriously wrong. Panics can always be caught on threads.)

It’s important (as always with mutexes) that this exclusive lock is held for as little time as possible. So it’s common for them to happen in a limited scope - then the lock ends when the mutable reference goes out of scope.

Compared with the apparently simpler situation in C++ (“use shared_ptr dude”) this seems awkward. But now any modifications of shared state become obvious, and the Mutex lock pattern forces thread safety.

Like everything, use shared references with caution.


Iterators in C++ are defined fairly informally; they generate smart pointers, usually starting with c.begin() and ending with c.end(). Operations on iterators are then implemented as stand-alone template functions, like std::find_if.

Rust iterators are defined by the Iterator trait; next returns an Option and when the Option is None we are finished.

The most common operations are now methods. Here is the equivalent of find_if. It returns an Option (case of not finding is None) and here the if let statement is convenient for extracting the non-None case:

let arr = [10, 2, 30, 5];
if let Some(res) = arr.find(|x| x == 2) {
    // res is 2

Unsafety and Linked Lists

It’s no secret that parts of the Rust stdlib are implemented using unsafe. This does not invalidate the conservative approach of the borrow checker. Remember that “unsafe” has a particular meaning - operations which Rust cannot fully verify at compile time. From Rust’s perspective, C++ operates in unsafe mode all the time! So if a large application needs a few dozen lines of unsafe code, then that’s fine, since these few lines can be carefully checked by a human. Humans are not good at checking 100Kloc+ of code.

I mention this, because there appears to be a pattern: an experienced C++ person tries to implement a linked list or a tree structure, and gets frustrated. Well, a double-linked list is possible in safe Rust, with Rc references going forward, and Weak references going back. But the standard library gets more performance out of using… pointers.