This tutorial shows how to use a pre-trained Deep Neural Network called Inception v3 for image classification.
The Inception v3 model takes weeks to train on a monster computer with 8 Tesla K40 GPUs and probably costing $30,000 so it is impossible to train it on an ordinary PC. We will instead download the pre-trained Inception model and use it to classify images.
The Inception v3 model has nearly 25 million parameters and uses 5 billion multiply-add operations for classifying a single image. On a modern PC without a GPU this can be done in a fraction of a second per image.
This tutorial hides the TensorFlow code so it may not require much experience with TensorFlow, although a basic understanding of TensorFlow from the previous tutorials might be helpful, especially if you want to study the implementation details in the
The following chart shows how the data flows in the Inception v3 model, which is a Convolutional Neural Network with many layers and a complicated structure. The research paper gives more details on how the Inception model is constructed and why it is designed that way. But the authors admit that they don’t fully understand why it works.
Note that the Inception model has two softmax-outputs. One is used during training of the neural network and the other is used for classifying images after training has finished, also known as inference.
Newer models became available just last week, which are even more complicated than Inception v3 and achieve somewhat better classification accuracy.
from IPython.display import Image, display Image('images/07_inception_flowchart.png')
%matplotlib inline import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import tensorflow as tf import numpy as np import os # Functions and classes for loading and using the Inception model. import inception
This was developed using Python 3.5.2 (Anaconda) and TensorFlow version:
The Inception model is downloaded from the internet. This is the default directory where you want to save the data-files. The directory will be created if it does not exist.
# inception.data_dir = 'inception/'
Download the data for the Inception model if it doesn’t already exist in the directory. It is 85 MB.
Downloading Inception v3 Model ... Data has apparently already been downloaded and unpacked.
Load the Inception model so it is ready for classifying images.
model = inception.Inception()
This is a simple wrapper-function for displaying the image, then classifying it using the Inception model and finally printing the classification scores.
def classify(image_path): # Display the image. display(Image(image_path)) # Use the Inception model to classify the image. pred = model.classify(image_path=image_path) # Print the scores and names for the top-10 predictions. model.print_scores(pred=pred, k=10, only_first_name=True)
This image of a panda is included in the Inception data-file. The Inception model is quite confident that this image shows a panda, with a classification score of about 89% and the next highest score being only about 0.8% for an indri, which is another exotic animal.
image_path = os.path.join(inception.data_dir, 'cropped_panda.jpg') classify(image_path)
89.11% : giant panda 0.78% : indri 0.30% : lesser panda 0.15% : custard apple 0.12% : earthstar 0.09% : sea urchin 0.05% : forklift 0.05% : digital watch 0.05% : gibbon 0.05% : go-kart
The output of the Inception model is a so-called Softmax-function which was also used in the neural networks in the previous tutorials.
The softmax-outputs are sometimes called probabilities because they are between zero and one, and they also sum to one - just like probabilities. But they are actually not probabilities in the traditional sense of the word, because they do not come from repeated experiments.
It is perhaps better to call the output values of a neural network for classification scores or ranks, because they indicate how strongly the network believes that the input image is of each possible class.
In the above example with the image of a panda, the Inception model gave a very high score of about 89% for the panda-class, and the scores for the remaining 999 possible classes were all below 1%. This means the Inception model was quite certain that the image showed a panda and the remaining scores below 1% should be regarded as noise. For example, the 8th highest score was 0.05% for a digital watch, but this is probably more due to the imprecise nature of neural networks rather than an indication that the image looked slightly like a digital watch.
Sometimes the Inception model is confused about which class an image belongs to, so none of the scores are really high. Examples of this are shown below.
The Inception model is very confident (score about 97%) that this image shows a kind of parrot called a macaw.
97.18% : macaw 0.07% : African grey 0.06% : toucan 0.05% : jacamar 0.04% : bee eater 0.03% : lorikeet 0.02% : sulphur-crested cockatoo 0.02% : jay 0.01% : kite 0.01% : indigo bunting
The Inception model works on input images that are 299 x 299 pixels in size. The above image of a parrot is actually 320 pixels wide and 785 pixels high, so it is resized automatically by the Inception model.
We now want to see the image after it has been resized by the Inception model.
First we have a helper-function for getting the resized image from inside the Inception model.
def plot_resized_image(image_path): # Get the resized image from the Inception model. resized_image = model.get_resized_image(image_path=image_path) # Plot the image. plt.imshow(resized_image, interpolation='nearest') # Ensure that the plot is shown. plt.show()
Now plot the resized image of the parrot. This is the image that is actually input to the neural network of the Inception model. We can see that it has been squeezed so it is square, and the resolution has been reduced so the image has become more pixelated and grainy.
In this case the image still clearly shows a parrot, but some images may become so distorted from this naive resizing that you may want to resize the images yourself before inputting them to the Inception model.
This image of the parrot has been cropped manually to 299 x 299 pixels and then input to the Inception model, which is still very confident (score about 97%) that it shows a parrot (macaw).
97.52% : macaw 0.09% : African grey 0.03% : sulphur-crested cockatoo 0.02% : toucan 0.02% : reflex camera 0.01% : comic book 0.01% : backpack 0.01% : bib 0.01% : vulture 0.01% : lens cap
This is another crop of the parrot image, this time showing its body without the head or tail. The Inception model is still very confident (score about 94%) that it shows a macaw parrot.
94.21% : macaw 0.76% : toucan 0.58% : African grey 0.11% : jacamar 0.10% : sulphur-crested cockatoo 0.10% : bee eater 0.09% : magpie 0.08% : jay 0.06% : lorikeet 0.04% : hornbill
This image has been cropped so it only shows the tail of the parrot. Now the Inception model is quite confused and thinks the image might show a jacamar (score about 26%) which is another exotic bird, or perhaps the image shows a grass-hopper (score about 10%).
The Inception model also thinks the image might show a fountain-pen (score about 2%). But this is a very low score and should be interpreted as unreliable noise.
26.51% : jacamar 10.56% : grasshopper 3.58% : chime 2.15% : bulbul 1.93% : fountain pen 1.64% : leafhopper 1.31% : kite 1.22% : cricket 1.09% : macaw 0.81% : bee eater
The best way to input images to this Inception model, is to pad the image so it is square and then resize the image to 299 x 299 pixels, like this example of the parrot which is classified correctly with a score of about 97%.
96.87% : macaw 0.06% : African grey 0.06% : toucan 0.05% : bee eater 0.04% : sulphur-crested cockatoo 0.03% : king penguin 0.03% : jacamar 0.03% : lorikeet 0.01% : kite 0.01% : anemone fish
This image shows the living legend and super-nerd-hero Elon Musk. But the Inception model is very confused about what the image shows, predicting that it maybe shows a sweatshirt (score about 17%) or an abaya (score about 16%). It also thinks the image might show a ping-pong ball (score about 3%) or a baseball (score about 2%). So the Inception model is confused and the classification scores are unreliable.
16.63% : sweatshirt 16.45% : abaya 4.62% : suit 3.40% : ping-pong ball 2.89% : trench coat 2.37% : baseball 2.31% : cellular telephone 1.99% : jersey 1.42% : water bottle 1.34% : dumbbell
If we instead use a 100 x 100 pixels image of Elon Musk, then the Inception model thinks it might show a sweatshirt (score about 22%) or a cowboy boot (score about 14%). So now the Inception model has somewhat different predictions but it is still very confused.
21.65% : sweatshirt 14.51% : cowboy boot 9.11% : abaya 8.70% : balance beam 5.92% : suit 5.65% : Loafer 3.66% : trench coat 1.75% : maillot 1.44% : jersey 1.44% : unicycle
The Inception model automatically upscales this image from 100 x 100 to 299 x 299 pixels, which is shown here. Note how pixelated and grainy it really is, although a human can easily see that this is a picture of a man with crossed arms.
This image shows the actor Gene Wilder portraying Willy Wonka in the 1971 version of the movie. The Inception model is very confident that the image shows a bow tie (score about 98%), which is true but a human would probably say this image shows a person.
The reason might be that the Inception model was trained on images of people with bow-ties that were classified as a bow-tie rather than a person. So maybe the problem is that the class-name should be “person with bow-tie” instead of just “bow-tie”.
97.98% : bow tie 0.63% : cowboy hat 0.14% : sombrero 0.07% : suit 0.05% : bolo tie 0.04% : Windsor tie 0.03% : cornet 0.02% : flute 0.02% : banjo 0.01% : revolver
This image shows the actor Johnny Depp portraying Willy Wonka in the 2005 version of the movie. The Inception model thinks that this image shows “sunglasses” (score about 34%) or “sunglass” (score about 18%). Actually, the full name of the first class is “sunglasses, dark glasses, shades”. For some reason the Inception model has been trained to recognize two very similar classes for sunglasses. Once again, it is correct that the image shows sunglasses, but a human would probably have said that this image shows a person.
34.47% : sunglasses 18.10% : sunglass 1.29% : velvet 0.95% : wig 0.85% : cowboy hat 0.72% : sombrero 0.64% : seat belt 0.50% : jean 0.44% : stole 0.41% : poncho
We are now done using TensorFlow, so we close the session to release its resources. Note that the TensorFlow-session is inside the model-object, so we close the session through that object.
# This has been commented out in case you want to modify and experiment # with the Notebook without having to restart it. # model.close()
This tutorial showed how to use the pre-trained Inception v3 model. It takes several weeks for a monster-computer to train the Inception model, but we can just download the finished model from the internet and use it on a normal PC for classifying images.
Unfortunately, the Inception model appears to have problems recognizing people. This may be due to the training-set that was used. Newer versions of the Inception model have already been released, but they are probably also trained on the same data-set and may therefore also have problems recognizing people. Future models will hopefully be trained to recognize common objects such as people.
In this tutorial we have hidden the TensorFlow implementation in the
inception.py file because it is a bit messy and we may want to re-use it in future tutorials. Hopefully the TensorFlow developers will standardize and simplify the API for loading these pre-trained models more easily, so that anyone can use a powerful image classifier with just a few lines of code.
These are a few suggestions for exercises that may help improve your skills with TensorFlow. It is important to get hands-on experience with TensorFlow in order to learn how to use it properly.
You may want to backup this Notebook and the other files before making any changes.
Copyright © 2016 by Magnus Erik Hvass Pedersen
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